A Multilevel Study of Transformational Leadership and Motivational Climates in University Basketball Teams

San-Fu Kao * and Jack C. Watson Ii **

(*) National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, ROC
(**) Virginia University, USA

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between transformational leadership behaviors and motivational climate in a multilevel framework. A sample of basketball players (N = 364) competing on 27 university teams in Taiwan completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 during their post-seasons. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were conducted. The analyses revealed that perception of transformational leadership was positively related to perceived mastery climate at the individual (g = 0.70, p < .01), cross (g = 0.59, p < .01), and group levels (b = .83, p < .01). Transformational leadership was not related to performance climate at the individual (g = -0.03, p > .05) and group levels (b = -.27, p > .05), while it negatively predicted performance climate at the cross level (g = -0.28, p < .05). The findings indicated that perceptions of coaches’ transformational leadership behaviors might help to improve perceptions of a mastery-oriented climate and may assist in inhibiting a performance-oriented motivational climate.

Keywords: Coaching behavior, Multilevel Modeling, Team Sport