Validation of a dutch measure for implicit theories of ability in sport (CNAAQ-2-NL)

Gerald M. Weltevreden, Edwin A. J. Van Hooft and Annelies E. M. Van Vianen

Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam


Weltevreden, G.M., Van Hooft, E.A.J., Van Vianen, A.E.M. (2022). Validation of a dutch measure for implicit theories of ability in sport (CNAAQ-2-NL). International Journal of Sport Psychology, 53(4), 326-354. doi:10.7352/IJSP.2022.53.326


Our goal was to validate the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Abili- ties Questionnaire (CNAAQ-2) in a Dutch context. We conducted three studies to examine its psychometric qualities. In Study 1 we performed exploratory factor analyses on two samples (N = 400, and N = 341), which supported a solution of four factors labeled entity-stable, entity-gift, incremental-learning, and incre- mental-improvement. A confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable fit of a four-plus-two higher-order factor model, with entity and incremental as higher-or- der factors. To further improve the psychometric properties, 25 items were added, and in Study 2 we merged three samples that were then randomly split in two halves. A principal component analysis of the first half of the data (N = 255) led to a selection of 21 items (the CNAAQ-2-NL), which was verified in a confirma- tory factor analysis of the second half of the data (N = 255). The fit of a model with four lower-order factors (entity-stable, entity-gift, incremental-learning, and incremental-improvement) was acceptable, as was the fit of a four-plus-two high- er-order factor model, with entity and incremental as higher-order factors. In Study 3 (N = 322) we administered the CNAAQ-2-NL along with other measures, at two points in time three weeks apart. Test-retest reliability was good, and conver- gent validity was supported by relations with Dweck’s measures of implicit the- ories of intelligence and sport abilities. Criterion-related validity was supported by relations with achievement goals. We conclude that the factor structure of the CNAAQ-2-NL was according to theory, and that validity was sufficiently support- ed. However, our findings also suggest that the role of implicit theories may be different in sport than in the context of intelligence and needs further investigation.

Keywords: Implicit theories, entity beliefs, incremental beliefs, achievement goals, CNAAQ-2, Dutch