Cecile J. Proctor and Lisa A. Best
University of New Brunswick Saint John, Canada
J. Proctor, C., A. Best, L. (2021). The effects of single and multiple concussions: Psychological well-being, individual experiences, and self-reported knowledge. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 52(6), 543-554. doi:10.7352/IJSP.2021.52.543
Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury defined by a change in mental status resulting from mechanical trauma to the brain. Although most people recover from concussion, long-term physical and psychological effects are common. Our purpose was to (1) examine the impact and knowledge of symptoms and potential treatments and, (2) assess the impact of concussion on psychological well-being. Participants completed an online questionnaire to assess their concussion history, concussion knowledge, and psychological wellness. Overall, 96 participants indicated having one concussion, 109 reported multiple concussions, and 255 had no concussion history. Interestingly, there were few psychosocial differences between participants who reported one or multiple concussions. Concussion history was associated with lower life and leisure satisfaction and higher depression and loneliness. Perceptions of concussion symptoms, severity, and medical advice was inconsistent suggesting that education focused on long-term psychological consequences would be useful for laypersons and professionals.
Keywords: Concussion, mild traumatic brain Injury (mTBI), satisfaction with life (SWL), depression, loneliness.